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  • Adolf Hitler - Wikipedia
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Adolf Hitler ( German: [ˈadɔlf ˈhɪtlɐ]  (   listen ) ; 20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician who was the leader of the Nazi Party ( Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei ; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945. [a] As dictator , Hitler initiated World War II in Europe with the invasion of Poland in September 1939, and was central to the Holocaust .

Under Hitler's leadership and racially motivated ideology , the Nazi regime was responsible for the genocide of at least 5.5 million Jews and millions of other victims whom he and his followers deemed Untermenschen (sub-humans) or socially undesirable. Hitler and the Nazi regime were also responsible for the killing of an estimated 19.3 million civilians and prisoners of war. In addition, 29 million soldiers and civilians died as a result of military action in the European theatre. The number of civilians killed during the Second World War was unprecedented in warfare and the casualties constituted the deadliest conflict in human history .

Nazi official Hans Frank suggested that Alois's mother had been employed as a housekeeper by a Jewish family in Graz , and that the family's 19-year-old son Leopold Frankenberger had fathered Alois. [8] No Frankenberger was registered in Graz during that period, and no record has been produced of Leopold Frankenberger's existence, [9] so historians dismiss the claim that Alois's father was Jewish. [10] [11]

The attack against the U.S.S.R. was launched on June 22, 1941. The German army advanced swiftly into the Soviet Union, corralling almost three million Russian prisoners, but it failed to destroy its Russian opponent. Hitler became overbearing in his relations with his generals. He disagreed with them about the object of the main attack, and he wasted time and strength by failing to concentrate on a single objective. In December 1941, a few miles before Moscow, a Russian counteroffensive finally made it clear that Hitler’s hopes of a single campaign could not be realized.

On December 7, the next day, the Japanese attacked U.S. forces at Pearl Harbor . Hitler’s alliance with Japan forced him to declare war on the United States . From this moment on his entire strategy changed. He hoped and tried (like his idol Frederick II the Great ) to break what he deemed was the unnatural coalition of his opponents by forcing one or the other of them to make peace. (In the end, the “unnatural” coalition between Stalin and Winston Churchill and Franklin D. Roosevelt did break up, but too late for Hitler.) He also ordered the reorganization of the German economy on a full wartime basis.

Desperate officers and anti-Nazi civilians became ready to remove Hitler and negotiate a peace . Several attempts on Hitler’s life were planned in 1943–44; the most nearly successful was made on July 20, 1944, when Colonel Claus von Stauffenberg exploded a bomb at a conference being held at Hitler’s headquarters in East Prussia . But Hitler escaped with superficial injuries, and, with few exceptions, those implicated in the plot were executed. The reduction of the army’s independence was now made complete; National Socialist political officers were appointed to all military headquarters.

Adolf Hitler ( German: [ˈadɔlf ˈhɪtlɐ]  (   listen ) ; 20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician who was the leader of the Nazi Party ( Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei ; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945. [a] As dictator , Hitler initiated World War II in Europe with the invasion of Poland in September 1939, and was central to the Holocaust .

Under Hitler's leadership and racially motivated ideology , the Nazi regime was responsible for the genocide of at least 5.5 million Jews and millions of other victims whom he and his followers deemed Untermenschen (sub-humans) or socially undesirable. Hitler and the Nazi regime were also responsible for the killing of an estimated 19.3 million civilians and prisoners of war. In addition, 29 million soldiers and civilians died as a result of military action in the European theatre. The number of civilians killed during the Second World War was unprecedented in warfare and the casualties constituted the deadliest conflict in human history .

Nazi official Hans Frank suggested that Alois's mother had been employed as a housekeeper by a Jewish family in Graz , and that the family's 19-year-old son Leopold Frankenberger had fathered Alois. [8] No Frankenberger was registered in Graz during that period, and no record has been produced of Leopold Frankenberger's existence, [9] so historians dismiss the claim that Alois's father was Jewish. [10] [11]

The attack against the U.S.S.R. was launched on June 22, 1941. The German army advanced swiftly into the Soviet Union, corralling almost three million Russian prisoners, but it failed to destroy its Russian opponent. Hitler became overbearing in his relations with his generals. He disagreed with them about the object of the main attack, and he wasted time and strength by failing to concentrate on a single objective. In December 1941, a few miles before Moscow, a Russian counteroffensive finally made it clear that Hitler’s hopes of a single campaign could not be realized.

On December 7, the next day, the Japanese attacked U.S. forces at Pearl Harbor . Hitler’s alliance with Japan forced him to declare war on the United States . From this moment on his entire strategy changed. He hoped and tried (like his idol Frederick II the Great ) to break what he deemed was the unnatural coalition of his opponents by forcing one or the other of them to make peace. (In the end, the “unnatural” coalition between Stalin and Winston Churchill and Franklin D. Roosevelt did break up, but too late for Hitler.) He also ordered the reorganization of the German economy on a full wartime basis.

Desperate officers and anti-Nazi civilians became ready to remove Hitler and negotiate a peace . Several attempts on Hitler’s life were planned in 1943–44; the most nearly successful was made on July 20, 1944, when Colonel Claus von Stauffenberg exploded a bomb at a conference being held at Hitler’s headquarters in East Prussia . But Hitler escaped with superficial injuries, and, with few exceptions, those implicated in the plot were executed. The reduction of the army’s independence was now made complete; National Socialist political officers were appointed to all military headquarters.

Sponsored Products are advertisements for products sold by merchants on Amazon.com. When you click on a Sponsored Product ad, you will be taken to an Amazon detail page where you can learn more about the product and purchase it.


"The authoritative volume, will remain so for a long time to come--if not for good--and is simply not to be missed! This is the best book on Hitler in many years." --he Military Advisor


Thomas Weber is Reader in European and International History at the University of Aberdeen, Scotland. His first book, The Lodz Ghetto Album , won the Infinity Award of the International Center of Photography and the Golden Light Award. His second book, Our Friend "The Enemy" , won the Duc d'Arenberg History Prize.

Adolf Hitler ( German: [ˈadɔlf ˈhɪtlɐ]  (   listen ) ; 20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician who was the leader of the Nazi Party ( Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei ; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945. [a] As dictator , Hitler initiated World War II in Europe with the invasion of Poland in September 1939, and was central to the Holocaust .

Under Hitler's leadership and racially motivated ideology , the Nazi regime was responsible for the genocide of at least 5.5 million Jews and millions of other victims whom he and his followers deemed Untermenschen (sub-humans) or socially undesirable. Hitler and the Nazi regime were also responsible for the killing of an estimated 19.3 million civilians and prisoners of war. In addition, 29 million soldiers and civilians died as a result of military action in the European theatre. The number of civilians killed during the Second World War was unprecedented in warfare and the casualties constituted the deadliest conflict in human history .

Nazi official Hans Frank suggested that Alois's mother had been employed as a housekeeper by a Jewish family in Graz , and that the family's 19-year-old son Leopold Frankenberger had fathered Alois. [8] No Frankenberger was registered in Graz during that period, and no record has been produced of Leopold Frankenberger's existence, [9] so historians dismiss the claim that Alois's father was Jewish. [10] [11]

The attack against the U.S.S.R. was launched on June 22, 1941. The German army advanced swiftly into the Soviet Union, corralling almost three million Russian prisoners, but it failed to destroy its Russian opponent. Hitler became overbearing in his relations with his generals. He disagreed with them about the object of the main attack, and he wasted time and strength by failing to concentrate on a single objective. In December 1941, a few miles before Moscow, a Russian counteroffensive finally made it clear that Hitler’s hopes of a single campaign could not be realized.

On December 7, the next day, the Japanese attacked U.S. forces at Pearl Harbor . Hitler’s alliance with Japan forced him to declare war on the United States . From this moment on his entire strategy changed. He hoped and tried (like his idol Frederick II the Great ) to break what he deemed was the unnatural coalition of his opponents by forcing one or the other of them to make peace. (In the end, the “unnatural” coalition between Stalin and Winston Churchill and Franklin D. Roosevelt did break up, but too late for Hitler.) He also ordered the reorganization of the German economy on a full wartime basis.

Desperate officers and anti-Nazi civilians became ready to remove Hitler and negotiate a peace . Several attempts on Hitler’s life were planned in 1943–44; the most nearly successful was made on July 20, 1944, when Colonel Claus von Stauffenberg exploded a bomb at a conference being held at Hitler’s headquarters in East Prussia . But Hitler escaped with superficial injuries, and, with few exceptions, those implicated in the plot were executed. The reduction of the army’s independence was now made complete; National Socialist political officers were appointed to all military headquarters.

Sponsored Products are advertisements for products sold by merchants on Amazon.com. When you click on a Sponsored Product ad, you will be taken to an Amazon detail page where you can learn more about the product and purchase it.


"The authoritative volume, will remain so for a long time to come--if not for good--and is simply not to be missed! This is the best book on Hitler in many years." --he Military Advisor


Thomas Weber is Reader in European and International History at the University of Aberdeen, Scotland. His first book, The Lodz Ghetto Album , won the Infinity Award of the International Center of Photography and the Golden Light Award. His second book, Our Friend "The Enemy" , won the Duc d'Arenberg History Prize.

Adolf Hitler, the leader of Germany’s Nazi Party, was one of the most powerful and notorious dictators of the 20th century. Hitler capitalized on economic woes, popular discontent and political infighting to take absolute power in Germany beginning in 1933. Germany’s invasion of Poland in 1939 led to the outbreak of World War II, and by 1941 Nazi forces had occupied much of Europe. Hitler’s virulent anti-Semitism and obsessive pursuit of Aryan supremacy fueled the murder of some 6 million Jews, along with other victims of the Holocaust. After the tide of war turned against him, Hitler committed suicide in a Berlin bunker in April 1945.

Adolf Hitler was born on April 20, 1889, in Branau am Inn, a small Austrian town near the Austro-German frontier. After his father, Alois, retired as a state customs official, young Adolf spent most of his childhood in Linz, the capital of Upper Austria.

Not wanting to follow in his father’s footsteps as a civil servant, he began struggling in secondary school and eventually dropped out. Alois died in 1903, and Adolf pursued his dream of being an artist, though he was rejected from Vienna’s Academy of Fine Arts.

Adolf Hitler ( German: [ˈadɔlf ˈhɪtlɐ]  (   listen ) ; 20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician who was the leader of the Nazi Party ( Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei ; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945. [a] As dictator , Hitler initiated World War II in Europe with the invasion of Poland in September 1939, and was central to the Holocaust .

Under Hitler's leadership and racially motivated ideology , the Nazi regime was responsible for the genocide of at least 5.5 million Jews and millions of other victims whom he and his followers deemed Untermenschen (sub-humans) or socially undesirable. Hitler and the Nazi regime were also responsible for the killing of an estimated 19.3 million civilians and prisoners of war. In addition, 29 million soldiers and civilians died as a result of military action in the European theatre. The number of civilians killed during the Second World War was unprecedented in warfare and the casualties constituted the deadliest conflict in human history .

Nazi official Hans Frank suggested that Alois's mother had been employed as a housekeeper by a Jewish family in Graz , and that the family's 19-year-old son Leopold Frankenberger had fathered Alois. [8] No Frankenberger was registered in Graz during that period, and no record has been produced of Leopold Frankenberger's existence, [9] so historians dismiss the claim that Alois's father was Jewish. [10] [11]

Adolf Hitler ( German: [ˈadɔlf ˈhɪtlɐ]  (   listen ) ; 20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician who was the leader of the Nazi Party ( Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei ; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945. [a] As dictator , Hitler initiated World War II in Europe with the invasion of Poland in September 1939, and was central to the Holocaust .

Under Hitler's leadership and racially motivated ideology , the Nazi regime was responsible for the genocide of at least 5.5 million Jews and millions of other victims whom he and his followers deemed Untermenschen (sub-humans) or socially undesirable. Hitler and the Nazi regime were also responsible for the killing of an estimated 19.3 million civilians and prisoners of war. In addition, 29 million soldiers and civilians died as a result of military action in the European theatre. The number of civilians killed during the Second World War was unprecedented in warfare and the casualties constituted the deadliest conflict in human history .

Nazi official Hans Frank suggested that Alois's mother had been employed as a housekeeper by a Jewish family in Graz , and that the family's 19-year-old son Leopold Frankenberger had fathered Alois. [8] No Frankenberger was registered in Graz during that period, and no record has been produced of Leopold Frankenberger's existence, [9] so historians dismiss the claim that Alois's father was Jewish. [10] [11]

The attack against the U.S.S.R. was launched on June 22, 1941. The German army advanced swiftly into the Soviet Union, corralling almost three million Russian prisoners, but it failed to destroy its Russian opponent. Hitler became overbearing in his relations with his generals. He disagreed with them about the object of the main attack, and he wasted time and strength by failing to concentrate on a single objective. In December 1941, a few miles before Moscow, a Russian counteroffensive finally made it clear that Hitler’s hopes of a single campaign could not be realized.

On December 7, the next day, the Japanese attacked U.S. forces at Pearl Harbor . Hitler’s alliance with Japan forced him to declare war on the United States . From this moment on his entire strategy changed. He hoped and tried (like his idol Frederick II the Great ) to break what he deemed was the unnatural coalition of his opponents by forcing one or the other of them to make peace. (In the end, the “unnatural” coalition between Stalin and Winston Churchill and Franklin D. Roosevelt did break up, but too late for Hitler.) He also ordered the reorganization of the German economy on a full wartime basis.

Desperate officers and anti-Nazi civilians became ready to remove Hitler and negotiate a peace . Several attempts on Hitler’s life were planned in 1943–44; the most nearly successful was made on July 20, 1944, when Colonel Claus von Stauffenberg exploded a bomb at a conference being held at Hitler’s headquarters in East Prussia . But Hitler escaped with superficial injuries, and, with few exceptions, those implicated in the plot were executed. The reduction of the army’s independence was now made complete; National Socialist political officers were appointed to all military headquarters.

Sponsored Products are advertisements for products sold by merchants on Amazon.com. When you click on a Sponsored Product ad, you will be taken to an Amazon detail page where you can learn more about the product and purchase it.


"The authoritative volume, will remain so for a long time to come--if not for good--and is simply not to be missed! This is the best book on Hitler in many years." --he Military Advisor


Thomas Weber is Reader in European and International History at the University of Aberdeen, Scotland. His first book, The Lodz Ghetto Album , won the Infinity Award of the International Center of Photography and the Golden Light Award. His second book, Our Friend "The Enemy" , won the Duc d'Arenberg History Prize.

Adolf Hitler, the leader of Germany’s Nazi Party, was one of the most powerful and notorious dictators of the 20th century. Hitler capitalized on economic woes, popular discontent and political infighting to take absolute power in Germany beginning in 1933. Germany’s invasion of Poland in 1939 led to the outbreak of World War II, and by 1941 Nazi forces had occupied much of Europe. Hitler’s virulent anti-Semitism and obsessive pursuit of Aryan supremacy fueled the murder of some 6 million Jews, along with other victims of the Holocaust. After the tide of war turned against him, Hitler committed suicide in a Berlin bunker in April 1945.

Adolf Hitler was born on April 20, 1889, in Branau am Inn, a small Austrian town near the Austro-German frontier. After his father, Alois, retired as a state customs official, young Adolf spent most of his childhood in Linz, the capital of Upper Austria.

Not wanting to follow in his father’s footsteps as a civil servant, he began struggling in secondary school and eventually dropped out. Alois died in 1903, and Adolf pursued his dream of being an artist, though he was rejected from Vienna’s Academy of Fine Arts.

Adolf Hitler was born on 20th April, 1889, in the small Austrian town of Braunau near the German border. Both Hitler's parents had come from poor peasant families. His father Alois Hitler , the illegitimate son of a housemaid, was an intelligent and ambitious man and was at the time of Adolf Hitler's birth, a senior customs official in Lower Austria . (1)

Alois had been married before. In 1873 he had married Anna Glasl, the fifty-year-old adopted daughter of another customs collector. According to Ian Kershaw , the author of Hitler 1889-1936 (1998): "It is unlikely to have been a love-match. The marriage to a woman fourteen years older than himself had almost certainly a material motive, since Anna was relatively well off, and in addition had connections within the civil service." Anna suffered from poor health and her age meant that she was unable to have children. (2)

Klara Polzl , Adolf Hitler's mother, left home at sixteen to to join the household of her second cousin, Alois Hitler. Soon afterwards Alois began a sexual relationship with another maid in the house, Franziska Matzelberger . In 1877 Alois changed his surname from Schickelgruber to Hitler. It is claimed he did this to inherit money from Johann Nepomuk Hiedler (Hitler was an another way of spelling Hiedler - both mean "smallholding" in German. (3)



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